By Michael LaBossiere
30 Fallacies is a better half ebook for forty two Fallacies. forty two Fallacies isn't, although, required to take advantage of this publication. It presents concise descriptions and examples of thirty universal casual fallacies.
Accent, Fallacy of
Accident, Fallacy of
Amphiboly, Fallacy of
Appeal to Envy
Appeal to staff Identity
Appeal to Guilt
Appeal to Silence
Appeal to Vanity/Elitism
Argumentum advert Hitlerum
Confusing motives and Excuses
Cum Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc
Equivocation, Fallacy of
Moving the aim Posts
Overconfident Inference from Unknown Statistics
Positive advert Hominem
Proving X, Concluding Y
Reification, Fallacy of
Texas Sharpshooter Fallacy
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Additional info for 30 More Fallacies
I’m fine with teaching assistants who advocate for students. ” Drew: “Of course. Now I’m the cruel professor. ” Cum Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc Description: This is an error in causal reasoning that occurs when it is assumed that the correlation between two things must be a causal connection. ” This fallacy has the following form: 1) There is a correlation between A and B. 2) Therefore, A causes B. This fallacy is related to the post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy. The difference is that the post hoc fallacy occurs when it is inferred that A causes B merely because A occurs before B.
Sam: “That is the odd part. I still do. But I’m sure the clothes cause headaches. ” Nancy: “You know that isn’t true. ” Ashleigh: “Oh, I know. But I heard the professor say in class that drowning deaths increase in proportion to the sale of ice cream. ” Equivocation, Fallacy of Description: Equivocation occurs when an ambiguous expression is used in more than one of its meanings in a single context. The fallacy occurs when that context is an argument and the conclusion depends on shifting the meaning of the expression while treating it as if it remains the same.
The general idea is that the weight of the examples establishes the claim in question. Although people generally present arguments by example in a fairly informal manner, they have the following logical form: 1) Premise 1: Example 1 is an example that supports claim P. 2) Premise n: Example n is an example that supports claim P. 3) Conclusion: Claim P is true. In this case n is a variable standing for the number of the premise in question and P is a variable standing for the claim under consideration.