Download A Chosen Calling: Jews in Science in the Twentieth Century by Noah J. Efron PDF

By Noah J. Efron

Students have struggled for many years to give an explanation for why Jews have succeeded extravagantly in smooth technological know-how. various debatable theories—from such intellects as C. P. Snow, Norbert Wiener, and Nathaniel Weyl—have been promoted. Snow hypothesized an developed genetic predisposition to medical luck. Wiener urged that the breeding conduct of Jews sustained hereditary characteristics conducive for studying. Economist and eugenicist Weyl attributed Jewish highbrow eminence to "seventeen centuries of breeding for scholars."

Rejecting the concept that Jews have performed good in technology due to uniquely Jewish characteristics, Jewish brains, and Jewish conduct of brain, historian of technological know-how Noah J. Efron techniques the Jewish affinity for technology in the course of the geographic and cultural conditions of Jews who have been pressured to settle in new worlds within the early 20th century.

Seeking reduction from spiritual persecution, thousands of Jews resettled within the usa, Palestine, and the Soviet Union, with huge concentrations of settlers in big apple, Tel Aviv, and Moscow. technological know-how performed a wide function within the lives and livelihoods of those immigrants: it was once a common strength that transcended the arbitrary outdated international orders that had lengthy ensured the exclusion of all yet a number of Jews from the seats of strength, wealth, and public esteem. even supposing the 3 locations have been a long way aside geographically, the hyperlinks one of the groups have been enduring and lively. This shared experience—of dealing with the longer term in new worlds, either actual and conceptual—provided a iteration of Jews with possibilities in contrast to any their mom and dad and grandparents had known.

The tumultuous fresh century of Jewish historical past, which observed either a methodical crusade to blot out Europe's Jews and the inexorable absorption of Western Jews into the societies during which they now stay, is illuminated by way of where of honor technology held in Jewish imaginations. technological know-how was once primary to their desires of making new worlds—welcoming worlds—for a persecuted people.

This provocative paintings will attract historians of technology in addition to students of faith, Jewish reviews, and Zionism.

Reviews:

Noah Efron's a selected Calling is a clean and impressive exploration of the passion with which Jews have celebrated technology, and of the mythical contrast with which they've got practiced technology in 3 significant domains... Efron indicates that during all 3 circumstances, Jews dropped at their novel situations a force for complete participation in an international the place that they had been denied that participation, and he exhibits, extra, that the universalist ethos of technological know-how supplied a uniquely strong technique of participating.

(David A. Hollinger, collage of California, Berkeley)

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139 Bei Justin dem Märtyrer wird es eher negativ konnotiert. 141 Von allen Vorgängern und Nachfolgern hebt sich Clemens von Alexandrien ab, der im zweiten Buch des Paidagogos eine kurze Theorie des Lachens im Anschluss an Aristoteles entwickelt. Es gilt zunächst der Grundsatz, dass Leute, die lächerliche oder auslachende Stimmungen (jatacek\stoi paho_) nachmachen, aus dem Idealstaat auszuweisen seien, weil die Fähigkeit, diese nachzumachen, auf eine grundsätzliche derartige Disposition schließen lasse.

Osten-Sacken, Rabbi Akiva. , 284 – 287. 136 bMak 24a-b. 137 Zum Folgenden vgl. Neil Adkin, The Fathers on Laughter, in: Orph. S. 6 (1985), 149 – 152. 18 Görge K. Hasselhoff 2. Frühpatristik Schon in den frühesten greifbaren Texten des entstehenden Christentums kommt die ambivalente Stellung zum Lachen zum Ausdruck. Clemens von Rom verwendet überlieferte biblische Denkschemata, wenn er sich über das Lachen äußert. So gibt er in mit einem Zitat aus Hiob 5 den Rat, Ungerechte und Frevler auszulachen (I Clem 56,11 = Hi 5,22: jatacek÷m), und zitiert in der Folge die oben angeführte Sentenz aus Proverbia 1,26 (= I Clem 57,4: 1picek÷m).

Dazu Müller (s. o. Anm. 144), 66, 121, 126 – 129, 186, 194. 154 Ammonas, Opuscula 2,4. 155 Pachomius, Praecursor 8; vgl. 31. 156 So Adkin (s. o. Anm. 137) mit unklarer Stellenangabe. 157 Basilius, Epitimia in canonicas 7. 158 Vgl. Basilius, Homiliae variae 1,9. 159 So Adkin (s. o. Anm. 137) mit unklarer Stellenangabe. 160 Benedikt, Regula 4, 53 – 54 Steidle. , 6,8. , 7,59 – 60; vgl. Johannes Cassian, Institutio 4,39,2. 163 Regula patrum III, 15. Lachen als Element der Religionsphilosophie? – Anregungen aus der Antike 21 milder sind die Regula magistri (11,75) und die Regula monasterii Tarnatensis (cp.

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