By Tony Wigram, Inge Nygaard Pedersen, Lars OLE Bonde
Song therapists, as in clinical and paramedical professions, have a wealthy variety of techniques and strategies, frequently built with particular relevance to fulfill the wishes of a undeniable consumer inhabitants. This booklet displays the numerous elements of such variety, and is a completely entire advisor to gaining access to and realizing the guidelines, concept, learn effects and medical results which are the rules of this box.
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Additional resources for A Comprehensive Guide to Music Therapy: Theory, Clinical Practice, Research and Training
Even Ruud rejects all attempts to define music as an unambiguous, objective or universal phenomenon. If music has a healing potential it cannot be explained by any simple cause-effect relationship or by universal, metaphysical principles. Ruud considers health a multifactorial phenomenon (and music as one of many factors in 38 A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE TO MUSIC THERAPY this complex) – and music can be understood as an ambiguous, ‘polysemic’ phenomenon: the meaning of music is always constructed in a specific context, be it private, local, regional or national.
Yes, music can have meaning even if it cannot be expressed in words. This ‘tacit knowledge’ or ‘inexpressible meaning’ can be found at different levels. At a structural level it is often impossible to formulate an even very precise musical experience in words. At a level that may be called the ‘level of nuances’ (Raffman 1993) the rich, dynamic and nuanced experiences of music listening or performance are perceived at a pre-verbal stage of knowledge that can be very precise and conscious even if verbal concepts are not at hand (this is probably what Mendelssohn meant when he claimed that music is not less precise but more precise than verbal language).
In conclusion, while the definition of music therapy that has at present been formulated by the WFMT is a very inclusive and all-embracing definition, variability is inevitable within different cultures and according to different traditions. In Denmark, for example, music therapy is practised at psychotherapeutic level and the definition of music therapy here relates specifically to meeting the therapeutic needs of the clients to the psychodynamic development of a relationship and the place of music within that relationship.