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By W. Gosling (auth.)

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Thermodynamic reasoning predicts, and experiment confirms, that the actual noise power which a resistor R at temperature T degrees absolute can deliver to a matched load (that is, a noise-free resistor of the same value) over a range offrequencies of bandwidth Af(measured in hertz, not radians per second) is = kTAf p",,! where k is Boltzmann's constant. s. voltage across the load is e",,! s. 1 The equivalent circuit of a noisy resistor connected to a noise-free matched load. e. ) Equivalent noise generators have properties which, although logical, seem a little odd at first sight.

Where the input terminals are floating the amplifier is usually designed to operate as a differential amplifier, that is, it should give a large voltage gain with the input between the two input terminals, but as small a gain as possible with the two input terminals joined together and the input applied between them and the common line. The gain in this latter case is known as the common mode response, and the ratio of gain 48 A FIRST COURSE IN APPLIED ELECTRONICS with the signal applied differentially between the input terminals to the common mode response is called the common mode rejection ratio.

19) by _E- VBE I BRB Such a simple arrangement is sometimes used, but is of limited value, because the characteristics of the transistor are rather sharply temperature dependant. Since RB is fixed in value (normally) the working point of the amplifier will be temperature dependant also. Methods of overcoming this problem will be considered later, in chapters 6 and 8. 15 with RB added, to provide a bias current. Although the arguments about biasing have been developed here in respect of a bipolar transistor amplifier, they are much more widely applicable.

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