By Quincy Wright
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Extra resources for A study of war, vol. 1
20j Rules of War [19171, art. " For various definitions of war see Wright, "Changes in the Conception of War," op. , pp. 761 ff. Some of these definitions include the idea of "proper methods" or "just objects," but it is only in a very limited sense that failure to conform to such standards renders the situation any the less war in the legal sense. Professional military men have often sought to emphasize such factors, recognized in Gentili's conception of war antedating that of Grotius-"a properly conducted contest of armed public forces" (De jure belli [15881 i.
These levels of analysis suggest that war is related to many fundamental values of society for good or for evil, according to the particular philosophy or theology; but, though they may suggest action, their prescriptions are likely to be too general to be effective. The social scientist, seeking to retain contacts with both the practical and the theoretical workers, centers attention upon the isolation of measurable or at least recognizable factors, useful for predicting or capable of manipulation for controlling the future.
Rivers14 and G. Elliot Smith'S and has been most elaborated by W. J. '6 These writers contend that war was invented in predynastic Egypt, along with agriculture, social classes, and human sacrifice. This "archaic" civilization was difiused by widespread travels of the Egyptians during the pyramid-building age. The nomadic barbarians on the outskirts of this civilization learned war from it and developed war methods in attacks upon its centers. The majority of anthropologists decline to accept this theory.