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By Alton Meister

A continual authoritative sequence reviewing study into enzymology and comparable parts of molecular biology. provides six papers by means of major specialists.

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B. BIOSYNTHESIS AND ENZYMOLOGY The basic unit from which terpenoids are synthesized is the fivecarbon isoprene unit; monoterpenes are derived from two such units, sesquiterpenes from three units and diterpenes from four units. A carbon atom may be lost in some terpenoid phytoalexins during the process of biosynthesis; for example, the norsesquiterpenoid rishitin (LXII)has 14 instead of 15 carbon atoms. A general scheme relating the synthesis of terpenoid phytoalexins with other areas of tissue metabolism is depicted in Scheme 14.

Thus only a low level of rishitin (LXII) is observed in potato tubers 120-144 hr after inoculation with Phytophthoru infestuns or treatment with a cell-free extract from the fungus (250,25 1). Further general details concerning terpenoid phytoalexins can be found in a number of recent reviews (12-14252-258). A. STRUCTURE AND OCCURRENCE A list of terpenoid phytoalexins and other postinfectionally formed plant terpenoid compounds is presented in Table V. Detailed studies have been made of the metabolism of only some of these compounds.

As 7-hydroxy,2',4'-dimethoxyisoflavone (XXXIX) was a very poor precursor of sativan, this latter phytoalexin may be formed by methylation of vestitol(201). 36 R. A. DIXON, P. M. DEY, AND C. J. LAMB R CH30 Ho% / OCH3 yJboH “O (XXXIX) OH R=H,XL R = OH, XLI The biosynthesis of the phytoalexins in Phaseolus vulgaris may proceed by a very similar route to that elucidated in M. saliva, the main differences between Schemes 8, 9, and 10 being the existence of the 5-hydroxy isoflavonoid pathway and the predominance of isoprenylation rather than methylation as the major substitution process after the initial Cls stage in P.

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