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By Stephen Edelston Toulmin

The significant challenge of ethics, in keeping with Stephen Toulmin, is that of discovering how to distinguish sturdy ethical arguments from susceptible ones, sturdy purposes from bad ones, and identifying even if there comes some degree during ethical argument whilst the giving of purposes turns into superfluous. The inquiry he undertakes in An exam of where of cause in Ethics facilities at the query of what makes a specific set of evidence that endure on an ethical choice a "good cause" for performing in a selected manner. the writer contends that he has no real interest in a round argument to the impact "good cause" is one who helps the type of act he may regard as a "good act"; his job is to explain the character of ethical reasoning and the type of good judgment that is going into it.

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If it comes to that, it is not enough that B should end up by saying, accepting and believing what A wants him to. His judgement over the question at issue may be faulty. He may be misled into accepting a mathematical conclusion by taking a special case as proving a general theorem. Or, if ao is a scientific hypothesis, he may be too readily impressed by experimental evidence which is in fact inadequate or irrelevant. If the argument is an ethical one, he may take everybody does it' as a reason for adopting a pernicious habit.

6-13. THE IMPERATIVE APPROACH THE 4 50 REASON IN ETHICS information to you—apart perhaps from information about your chances of the slipper—as he was in stopping you before you finished the pot. All these facts are true and important, and moral philosophers have in the past paid too little attention to them. But more is required in order to establish the literal truth of the imperative doctrine. 2 The Impossibility of Disputing about Exclamations In addition to their rhetorical force, ejaculations and commands have important logical characteristics in common.

THE IMPERATIVE APPROACH 4 THE IMPERATIVE APPROACH last of the three traditional approaches for us to discuss is the imperative' approach. The starting-point of this approach is the doctrine that, in calling anything good or right, we are only evincing (displaying) our feelings towards it. ' in a peculiarly horrified tone. This doctrine has a lot in common with the modified (` attitude ') form of subjective theory discussed in the last chapter; much of what was said there in criticism applies again with equal force.

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