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By Norbert M. Samuelson

The booklet is split into 3 sections. the 1st presents a normal historic assessment for the Jewish proposal that follows. the second one summarizes the diversity of simple different types of well known, optimistic Jewish dedication within the 20th century. The 3rd and significant part summarizes the fundamental considered these sleek Jewish philosophers whose concept is technically the easiest and/or the main influential in Jewish highbrow circles. The Jewish philosophers lined contain Spinoza, Mendelssohn, Hermann Cohen, Martin Buber, Franz Rosenzweig, Mordecai Kaplan, and Emil Fackenheim.

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What is unique about each? Where was each located? At what time? Who were the major spokesmen of each? 4. In general, how did the kabbalists characterize the ten emanations from God? 5. What did the thirteenth-century Spanish Hasidism add to Merkabah Kabbalah? 6. How did the kabbalists of Safed explain the existence of evil in this world? How and when will evil be overcome? 7. What were the factors that led to mass Jewish belief that the Messiah would come in the seventeenth-century? 8. What reasons did people give for continuing to follow Shabbatai Zevi after his conversion to Islam?

Similarly, to be a citizen of the Holy Roman Empire meant to be a Roman Catholic. At most what the Jews sought from their neighbors was to live in peace with them, with maximal trade and some social-cultural intercourse; but there was no question of common citizenship. The Jew was different from his neighbor in language and/or dress and/or culture and/or political identity and religion. While Jews sought their neighbors' tolerance of these differences, they did not desire to have them obliterated.

Translated in English by R. J. Zwi Werblowsky. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973. Page 19 R. J. Zwi Werblowsky, Joseph Karo: Lawyer and Mystic. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1977. Elie Wiesel, Souls on Fire: Portraits and Legends of Hasidic Leaders. Translated into English by Marion Wiesel. New York: Random House, 1973. " had not been raised. There was no problem about what it meant to say that someone is a Jew. " This nation was defined in terms of its covenant with a deity named "YHWH," who at one point in Jewish history happened to be characterized as the God of the world.

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