By American Petroleum Institute
Read or Download API STD 521 Guide for Pressure-relieving and Depressuring Systems Petroleum petrochemical and natural gas industries—Pressurerelieving and depressuring systems PDF
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Extra info for API STD 521 Guide for Pressure-relieving and Depressuring Systems Petroleum petrochemical and natural gas industries—Pressurerelieving and depressuring systems
Vessel draining and steam-out) and activities such as hydrotesting. However, they are not a foolproof form of protection and designers and operators should agree where procedures can safely be relied upon. If a vacuum-relief device is used, it shall be rated at a pressure comparable to that of the protected equipment. An instrumented system or regulator (repressuring system) can be used to add gas to prevent the vacuum from exceeding a specified level. The choice of gas should be considered carefully: air, nitrogen and fuel gas are commonly used, but each introduces different factors of cost, potential product contamination and flammability.
The vent area required is a function of a number of factors including the following: a) initial conditions (pressure, temperature, composition); b) flame propagation properties of the specific vapours or gases; c) volume of the vessel; d) pressure at which the vent device activates; e) maximum pressure that can be tolerated during a vented explosion incident. It should also be noted that the peak pressure reached during a vented explosion is usually higher, sometimes much higher, than the pressure at which the vent device activates.
Credit is normally not taken for the effect of residual coolant after the cooling stream fails because this effect is time-limited and depends on the physical configuration of the piping. However, if the process piping system is unusually large and bare, the effect of heat loss to the surroundings may be considered. 9 have generally been accepted for determining relieving rates. 3 --``````,`,,,`,`,,,,,,```,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- The required relieving rate is the total incoming vapour rate to the condenser, recalculated at a temperature that corresponds to the new vapour composition at relieving conditions, and the heat input prevailing at the time of relief.