By Frederick J Morrison, Catherine Lord and Daniel P. Keating (Eds.)
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This e-book constitutes the completely refereed post-proceedings of the 4th foreign convention on Parallel Processing and utilized arithmetic, PPAM 2002, held in Naleczow, Poland, in September 2001. The one hundred and one papers awarded have been rigorously reviewed and more desirable in the course of rounds of reviewing and revision.
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Extra resources for Applied Developmental Psychology. Volume 1
Cameron also pointed out that good spellers have cultivated "an attitude toward words that leads to careful observation of their details" (p. 319). Teachers were urged to instill this attitude. Repetition made without giving attention is of little value. This principle is sometimes . . designated by the term focalization. When there is focalization of attention, the child has his mind called sharply to the thing he is doing. In the case of spelling, this means that when he is learning to spell a word, he is thinking primarily of its spelling, and not of its meaning, or of the form of the letters as he writes them, or of some other fact connected with it.
Charters (1913), however, viewed spelling as having a more essential function. The real reason for learning to spell correctly is that we may be understood. In writing words we place the letters in a certain order so that people will know exactly what we mean. " Here we are inclined to think the writer an object of ridicule; and we have difficulty, moreover, in knowing exactly what he means. . Every time a word is misspelled, the writer has to trust to the mercy of the one who reads it. He has no right to expect to be understood.
Spelling Over the past 4 years we have been engaged in studying the process of producing written words. We have videotaped normal and learningdisabled children, and normal adults, as they wrote words. We have examined not merely spelling products, correctly or incorrectly spelled words, but also the millisecond-by-millisecond processes of producing them. We call this type of research microethology, since it borrows from the biologists a concern with naturally unfolding behaviors, and from the human performance researchers, a concern with the split-second time course of human cognition.