By Pooria Pasbakhsh; A K Haghi; G E Zaikov
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This e-book constitutes the completely refereed post-proceedings of the 4th foreign convention on Parallel Processing and utilized arithmetic, PPAM 2002, held in Naleczow, Poland, in September 2001. The one hundred and one papers offered have been rigorously reviewed and superior in the course of rounds of reviewing and revision.
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0 for 24 h) . 3 BIODEGRADATION OF PHB BY SOIL MICROORGANISMS Polymers exposed to the environment are degraded by their hydrolysis, mechanical, thermal, oxidative, and photochemical destruction, and biodegradation [7, 38, 55, 56]. One of the valuable properties of PHB is its biodegradability, which can be evaluated using various field and laboratory tests. Requirements for the biodegradability of PHB may vary in accordance with its applications. The most attractive property of PHB with 14 Applied Research on Polymer Composites respect to ecology is that it can be completely degraded by microorganisms finally to CO2 and H2O.
The activity of tissue macrophages and nonspecific enzymes of body liquids made a main contribution to significantly more rapid rate of PHB biodegradation in vivo in comparison with rate of PHB hydrolysis in vitro. The PHB material was encapsulated by degrading macrophages. Presence of PHB stimulated uniform macrophage infiltration, which is important for not only the degradation process but also the restoration of functional tissue. The long absorption time produced a foreign body reaction, which was restricted to macrophages forming a peripolymer layer [23, 65, 68, 72].
Coli is able to synthesize low-molecular weight PHB and cPHB plays various physiological roles in bacteria cells [127, 132]. 3 mM and is present in all animal tissues [133, 134].