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By Michelle Reichert

Chrétien de Troyes makes use of repeated references to Spain all through his romances; regardless of earlier feedback that they include Mozarabic and Islamic topics and motifs, those references have by no means been commented upon. The publication will exhibit that those allusions to Spain ensue at key moments within the romances, and are frequently coupled with linguistic "riddles" which function roadmaps to the way within which the romances are to be learn. those references and riddles appear to aid the concept that a few of their subject matters and motifs in Chrétien's romances are of Andalusi starting place. The e-book additionally analyzes Chrétien's inspiration of "conjointure" and indicates it to be the intentional elaboration of a type of Mischliteratur, which integrates Islamic and Jewish topics and motifs, in addition to mystical alchemical symbolism, into the normal spiritual and literary canons of his time. The distinction afforded by way of Chrétien's use of irony, and his sophisticated integration of this matière d'Orient into the traditional canon, constitutes a gently veiled feedback of the social and ethical behavior, in addition to religious ideals, of twelfth-century Christian society, the crusading mentality, chivalric mores, or even the idea of courtly love. the first curiosity of the ebook lies within the proven fact that will probably be the 1st to remark upon and examine Chrétien's references to Spain and the wealthy matière d'Orient in his romances, whereas suggesting channels for its transmission, via students, retailers, and non secular homes, from northern Spain to Champagne.

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Kent 1953, 136-37; Lecoq 1997. For the dialectic, see Amin 1973. DA N IE L L . S E LD E N 30 imperial space; on the other, an eclectic agglomeration of alien communities (dahyāva), which persisted as irregular, arbitrary, and potentially refractory components of an always as yet untotalized empire. ”80 The political connections are most complex, but also clearest, in Iōnian philosophía. At this time, city-states such as Milētos (the home of Thalēs, Anaximandros, Anaximenēs, and probably Leukippos too) and Ephesos (where Hērakleitos and his students worked) constituted part of the Īrānian satrapy of Yaunā, and hence paid regular tribute to the Great King.

Rainey 1969. On the province of Yehud, see Carter 1999; Grabbe 2004, esp. 132-56, 316-21; Lipschits 2006; Knowles 2006. Critical editions: Elliger and Rudolph 1997; Phillips 2004. On the title of the book, see Propp 1999, 119-20. For a concise overview of the various contemporary approaches to Exodus as a textual composition, see Redmount 1998. On the controversial historicity of the events—a possibility which has no bearing on the narrative as narrative per se—see Nicholson 1973; Hayes and Miller 1977, 151-56 and 264-77; Redford 1992; Hoffmeier 1997; Frerichs and Lesko 1997.

Condensed. For the port in question, see 3:xx-xxi. On Jewish scribal culture of the period, see Schams 1998. Or at least this is one way to construe the geographical connections that the record lays out; that there are possible scenarios, however, only foregrounds the complexity of the possible transimperial connections. For the satrapies of the Persian Empire, see Junge 1942; Toynbee 1954; Vogelgesang, 1992. For the Egyptian calendar, see Parker 1950; Depuydt 1977. See Bivar 1985. On the non-Aramaic technical terms in the account, see Yardeni 1994.

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