By Kirsten Heimann, Obulisamy Parthiba Karthikeyan, Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu
This ebook information 3 major issues: the screening and characterization of hydrocarbons from air, soil and water; applied sciences within the biodegradation of hydrocarbons; and the bioconversion of hydrocarbons for biofuel/chemicals, in addition to contemporary advancements within the remediation of hydrocarbons and their environmental advantages. the 1st part makes a speciality of screening equipment, qualitative and quantitative research of hydrocarbons from soil, air and water environments, speciation of hydrocarbons, and traditional bioremediation thoughts in such environments. the second one part examines applied sciences for elimination hydrocarbon contaminants from numerous environments, particularly complex applied sciences for the removing of hydrocarbons and in-situ and ex-situ remediation techniques and difficulties, in addition to concrete case experiences. The final part, protecting the bioconversion of hydrocarbons for biofuel/chemicals, highlights the biochemicals and bioproducts built from hydrocarbons, with a selected concentrate on biochemical and chemical applied sciences used to supply biopolymers, biofuel precursors and commodity chemical compounds from hydrocarbons.
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Additional resources for Biodegradation and Bioconversion of Hydrocarbons
Nam et al. (2008) determined PAHs in soil samples from background locations in the UK and Norway, to investigate environmental factors affecting their spatial distribution. Concentrations were more than four times higher in the UK soils. Proximity to sources and locations susceptible to high atmospheric deposition resulted in higher concentrations. Statistically signiﬁcant relationships between PAH and total organic carbon (TOC) were observed in the Norwegian samples. High molecular weight PAHs correlated with black carbon (BC) in UK woodland soil, suggesting that TOC plays a role in the retention of PAHs in soil and that PAHs are combined with BC during combustion.
The reduced effluent loadings are often reflected in signiﬁcantly reduced sediment contamination since the estuarine peak inputs until the 1980s. This was found to be the case in MHW with mean concentrations of trace metals in the sediment samples taken for dredging control between the grouped years 1984–1992 and 1993–2006. These averages show reductions ranging from 36 % (Ni), 50 % (Zn), 62 % (Pb), and 67 % (Cu), up to 85 % (Hg). However, the recycling of historical contaminants by sediment dynamics and spillage from dredging in MHW means that some of the recalcitrant PAHs and UCM in surﬁcial sediments that were identiﬁed date back to oil spills in 1996 (‘Sea Empress’), 1988 (‘El Omar’), and during WW 2 (Little et al.
Monitoring data suggest that within <5 years THC concentrations were similar to those before the spill. In fact, THC concentrations had already returned by April 1997 to pre-spill levels (1993), but in October 1997 there were renewed increases in THC almost throughout MHW. Nikitik and Robinson did not use ﬁngerprinting and did not discuss dredging disturbance as an additional possible mechanism for release of previously-deposited contaminants, for example in major dredging campaigns of 1992, 1997 and 1998.