Download Brain and Culture: Neurobiology, Ideology, and Social Change by Bruce E. Wexler PDF

By Bruce E. Wexler

Research indicates that among beginning and early maturity the mind calls for sensory stimulation to boost bodily. the character of the stimulation shapes the connections between neurons that create the neuronal networks worthwhile for concept and behaviour. by way of altering the cultural surroundings, each one iteration shapes the brains of the following. via early maturity, the neuroplasticity of the mind is enormously decreased, and this ends up in a basic shift within the courting among the person and the surroundings: through the first a part of lifestyles, the mind and brain form themselves to the most important routine beneficial properties in their setting; by means of early maturity, the person makes an attempt to make the surroundings comply with the confirmed inner buildings of the mind and brain. In mind and Culture, Bruce Wexler explores the social implications of the shut and altering neurobiological courting among the person and the surroundings, with specific recognition to the problems contributors face in maturity while the surroundings adjustments past their skill to keep up the healthy among current inner constitution and exterior truth. those problems are obtrusive in bereavement, the assembly of other cultures, the event of immigrants (in which young children of immigrant households are extra winning than their mom and dad on the helpful inner transformations), and the phenomenon of interethnic violence. Integrating fresh neurobiological examine with significant experimental findings in cognitive and developmental psychology -- with illuminating references to psychoanalysis, literature, anthropology, heritage, and politics -- Wexler provides a wealth of element to aid his arguments. The groundbreaking connections he makes permit for reconceptualization of the impression of cultural swap at the mind and supply a brand new organic base from which to think about such social concerns as "culture wars" and ethnic violence.

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And in young children who have had the entire left side of their brain surgically removed for treatment of otherwise untreatable seizures, all functions become localized in the remaining right hemisphere. Even the language function, which would otherwise have involved cytoarchitectonically specialized regions within the left hemisphere, becomes based entirely upon right hemisphere structures. In contrast, adults who suffer damage to language-specialized areas in the left hemisphere are often left with major and permanent impairments in language function.

These changes occur at several locations in the reflex circuit, and in 28 Chapter 1 this sense the memory that the light tactile stimulus is harmless is distributed through the circuit. After only four experimental sessions, each consisting of merely ten harmless tactile stimuli to the gill, the number of sensory neurons with physiologically detectable connections to motor neurons decreased from 90% of those sampled to only 10%. 2). Just the opposite sequence of events is observed if the gill withdrawal reflex is activated by potentially harmful electric shocks applied to the snail’s tail.

These latter structures, and their associated familial and social behaviors, are also the basis of emotion, and the final section of the chapter briefly considers the neural basis and neurodevelopmental significance of emotion. 20 Chapter 1 The Neuron Neurons are individual nerve cells. There are 100 billion in the human brain, and they are functionally linked with one another by a combined chemical and electrical communication system. Each neuron has thousands of receptors or chemical “docking stations” on its outer surface or membrane.

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