By Kees d'Angremond, F. van Roode
Breakwaters and closure dams belong to the main surprising hydraulic constructions. they're uncovered to the main critical loading through waves and currents, both in the course of their development, or in the course of their lifestyles cycle.
Design and building of those constructions are so vitally interrelated right understanding requires an intensive wisdom of the theory and a formal figuring out of functional concerns.
This booklet deals an essential, integrated combination of idea and perform to the graduate student. Beginning with a description of the practical specifications, it discusses the proper concept and indicates the appliance of expertise and theoretical wisdom to the layout.
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Additional info for Breakwaters and closure dams
Simulation: Detailing of concepts and alternatives (by calculation, simulation, or modelling) up to a level that makes them mutually comparable. Again a crosscheck with respect to cost and functionality is required. Evaluation: Assessment of the concepts and alternatives, comparison on the basis of cost and benefit. Decision: Selection of the best option. If more than one option is acceptable, repeat the process in further detail, until a final decision can be taken. This may involve some toggling between the abstraction levels in a particular phase of the design process.
A discussion of the merits of these methods is beyond the scope of this book. In this respect, mention must be made of another side-effect of a breakwater that may influence the nautical environment: reflection of waves. Reflection of short waves ©2004 Taylor & Francis may cause a choppy sea in the neighbourhood of the breakwater, which is a nuisance to smaller (often local and inland) vessels. 3 Morphology Although one of the purposes of a breakwater may be to interrupt the longshore sediment transport in order to prevent the siltation of a port entrance, a coastal engineer cannot close his eyes to the consequences of this phenomenon in a larger space and time frame.
Gaps Krammer closure Bath Markiezaatskade 5 6 Waddenzee (Netherlands) year method or means 1925 Sheet-pile wall 1633 sunken vessel 1978 sand closure, sunken barges 1969 concrete caissons IJsselmeer (Netherlands) 1932 Walcheren (Netherlands) 1945 boulder clay (crane pontoons) vessels and caissons Walcheren Noord Beveland Deltaworks Eastern Scheldt Deltaworks Schouwen (Netherlands) Schouwen-Goeree, Deltaworks Goeree-Voorne, Deltaworks Brielse Maas (Netherlands) 1961 caissons with gates 1986 gates between monoliths 1953 1972 1971 1950 caissons with gates caissons, blocks (cableway) concrete blocks (cableway) caisson 1952 sluice caisson 1871 sinking willow mattresses 1953 1964 caissons small caissons, quarry stone caisson with side trapdoors caissons; sandbags sand closure ship quarry stone, vertically Zeeuws-Vlaanderen (Netherlands) Walcheren-Zd.