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By Lynne Berdanier; Carolyn D Berdanier

''Today's wisdom of human wellbeing and fitness calls for a multidisciplinary knowing of medically similar sciences, and Case experiences within the body structure of food solutions the decision. devoted to the mixing of food technology with body structure, this article cohesively comprises descriptions of human difficulties with a purpose to stimulate scholars' serious wondering how the physique integrates a variety of physiological elements to Read more...

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Food intake in excess of need (hyperphagia) may characterize the genetically obese human, yet there are many overfat people who are not hyperphagic. There are those who cannot dissipate their surplus intake energy as heat⎯that is, thermogenesis⎯and who do not tolerate cold well. It has been suggested that some genetically obese individuals become obese because they are unable to increase their heat production when overfed or when suddenly thrust into a cold environment. Hyperphagia could also be due to a mutation in one of several of the hormones or their receptors that function in the regulation of food intake.

Normal chloride levels in plasma are 100–106 mEq/L and vary very little. The glomerular filtrate contains 108 mEq/L and urine contains 138 mEq/L. Sweat can contain as much as 40 mEq/L but usually contains only trace amounts. The intracellular fluid contains very little Cl– (∼4 mEq/L), whereas intestinal juice contains 69–127 mEq/L. In instances of secretory diarrhea, the chloride content of the excrement can be as high as 45 mEq/L. Chapter 3: Homeostasis 27 Most of the chloride in the intestinal tract does not appear in the feces of normal individuals.

Dietary intake is in excess of that of sodium, yet the usual plasma Na+:Cl– ratio is about 3:2. This imbalance is due to the passive nature of chloride transfer between water compartments and to the active system that serves to retain Na+. Instances of below and above normal plasma levels of Cl– are not diet related but are due to metabolic reasons usually related to the regulation of Na+ and K+ homeostasis. Calcium Calcium (Ca++) is the primary mineral in bones and teeth, where it is present as hydroxyapatite (3Ca3(PO4)2 • Ca(OH)2).

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