By George J. Antos, Abdullah M. Aitani
Explains the chemistry governing naphtha reforming, catalyst training and characterization, catalyst deactivation and regeneration, and the most recent advances in know-how and functions. contains new discussions of matters linked to non-stop catalyst regeneration, next-generation reforming catalysts, environmental rules affecting the sphere, and techniques of benzene aid.
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Extra info for Catalytic Naphtha Reforming
The error of calculation is not signiﬁcantly higher than for the composition –octane models derived from GC analysis. REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. G. ; Chemical Industries Vol. 3; Marcel Dekker: New York, 1999. com (Products and Services/Crude Oil and Condensate). S. ; Chemical Industries Vol. 61; Marcel Dekker: New York, 1995. Martino, G. Catalysis for oil reﬁning and petrochemistry: recent developments and future trends. ; Proceedings of the 12th ICC, Granada, Spain, July 9 –14, 2000; Vol.
By using an inert column stationary phase, the components elute in order of their boiling points. The ASTM D3710 method is specialized for gasoline fractions and gives the result within 15 min. 3 Sulfur and Nitrogen Analysis The fact that only small concentrations of sulfur and nitrogen poison reforming catalysts calls for highly accurate analysis methods, capable of measuring down to sub-ppm levels. Non-hydrotreated naphthas from thermal or catalytic cracking Figure 17 Results for an ASTM D86 distillation of a reformate sample.
The method, described in Table 6, is limited to straight-run naphthas, reformates, and alkylates because the oleﬁn content is limited to 2% and all components eluting after n-nonane (BP . 88C) are collected as one peak. The analysis time is 122 min. Table 7 describes an even more timeconsuming method that applies a longer column, a lower initial temperature, and a more complex temperature program designed to separate most C1 – C12 hydrocarbons in naphthas and reformates. A chromatogram with identiﬁed peaks obtained using this method on a reformate sample is shown in Figure 16.