By Edmund G. Seebauer, Meredith C. Kratzer
The technologically beneficial homes of a fantastic usually depend on the kinds and concentrations of the defects it comprises. now not unusually, defects in semiconductors were studied for a few years, in lots of instances with a view in the direction of controlling their habit via a variety of different types of "defect engineering." for instance, within the bulk, charging considerably impacts the full focus of defects which are to be had to mediate phenomena corresponding to solid-state diffusion. floor defects play a massive position in mediating floor mass delivery in the course of extreme temperature processing steps corresponding to epitaxial movie deposition, diffusional smoothing in reflow, and nanostructure formation in reminiscence gadget fabrication.
Charged Semiconductor Defects details the present nation of information concerning the houses of the ionized defects which can impact the habit of complex transistors, photo-active units, catalysts, and sensors.
- Group IV, III-V, and oxide semiconductors;
- Intrinsic and extrinsic defects; and,
- Point defects, in addition to disorder pairs, complexes and clusters.
A the most important reference for fabrics scientists, floor scientists, electric engineers, and solid-state physicists seeking to process the subject of disorder charging from an built-in chemical engineering standpoint. Researchers and commercial practitioners alike will locate its content material useful for gadget and strategy optimization.
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Additional info for Charged Semiconductor Defects: Structure, Thermodynamics and Diffusion
As point defects and defect clusters often exist at low concentrations, scientists frequently utilize diffusion measurements to indirectly characterize their charge-dependent properties. Each of these techniques provides distinct information, and not all of them are well suited to every semiconductor. 1 Direct Detection of Bulk Defects Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra provide detailed structural information about a semiconductor defects, including their symmetry, atomic, and lattice configurations (Weber 1983; Watkins 2000; Rowan 1990; Stich et al.
The kink sites at steps or island edges can mediate both adatom and vacancy diffusion mechanisms that operate in parallel. Without being destroyed themselves, kinks can independently create both adatoms and terrace vacancies (Blakely 1973). Although adatoms and vacancies can form and annihilate as pairs on terraces, equilibrium between these species does not require their coverages to be equal. Moreover, one species can dominate mass transport through superior numbers even if its mobility falls below that of the other species.
39 and p is the concentration of free hole carriers. Equations of this form can be written for other charge states as well. In the case of the vacancy in the (−2) state, the term p2 would appear in the denominator, whereas for the neutral state p would not appear at all. Oxides can also exchange metal atoms with the gas phase, although most experimental configurations do not allow independent control of metal gas phase pressure. However, metal vapor pressures are typically low, so that experiments that allow independent control of metal partial pressures still give good approximations to equilibrium conditions.