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By G. R. Palin and N. Hiller (Auth.)

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Atoms are never found unbonded in the hybridized state, nor is it possible t o detect this state. The concept of hybridization is merely a convenient mathematical approximation which also gives a 3 useful physical picture of the final bonded state. The sp hybridization involves two electrons in an s orbital and two in 3 a n d occurs in a number of elements, a m o n g them sili-2 separate ρ orbitals, con and tin. sp hybridization is not the only type which can occur, sp hybridization involves two electrons in an s orbital a n d one electron in a ρ orbital.

As in the melt, the ions are not completely independent, but are sufficiently free to move under the influence of an electric field. Such solutions conduct electricity and can be electrolysed. Ionic crystals are hard and brittle. In the crystal the attractive forces outweigh the repulsive forces, and the resultant forces holding the ions in the crystal pattern are large. This enables the crystal to withstand considerable distorting forces. O n the other hand, even a limited a m o u n t of distortion can upset the balance, leading to a preponderance of repulsive forces, and complete mechanical failure.

These energy bands are usually shown in the form of a plot of N(E) against E, where N(E) dE gives the number of energy states with energy between Ε and Ε + dE. Such plots are shown in Fig. 21. The energy bands may be separate, with forbidden energy values between, as shown in Fig. 21a, or, as is more common in metals, they may overlap as shown in Fig. 21b. (a) Ε FIG. 21. Energy band representation. Each delocalized orbital can contain two electrons, and so there is a maximum number of electrons which an energy band can contain.

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