By Morris Freedman, Larry Leach, Edith Kaplan, Gordon Winocur, Kenneth Shulman, Dean C. Delis
Written by means of a multidisciplinary staff of specialists in neurobehavior, this concise, well-illustrated ebook presents normative facts on clock drawing from a long time 20 to ninety years. a realistic consultant to the quantitative evaluation of clock drawing, it additionally takes a process-oriented method of qualitative impairment. The authors speak about clock drawing as a neuropsychological try out software and the reason for choosing particular time settings, in addition to the foundation for utilizing diversified clock stipulations. The e-book includes a variety of examples of clocks drawn by means of sufferers with cognitive impairment as a result of dementia, metabolic encephalopathy, tense mind damage, disconnection syndrome and focal mind lesions. perception into alterations in clock drawing skill that can signify the earliest markers of cognitive decline in dementia also are awarded. This quantity could be of curiosity to clinicians and researchers in neuropsychology, neurology, psychiatry, geriatric medication, language treatment, and occupational remedy.
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Additional resources for Clock Drawing: A Neuropsychological Analysis
54 Clock Drawing In contrast to the subjects with dementia, the Parkinson's patients without dementia drew numbers very well. In some cases they tended to draw a combination of Arabic numbers and strokes. This is not a pathological response, however. There was also a tendency for Parkinson's patients without dementia who had DRS scores in the lower range of normal to place some numbers outside and some inside the clock contour. As indicated above, drawing numbers outside the clock contour was a significant occurrence in patients with Parkinson's disease who have dementia.
The DRS correlates well with the Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale and measures cognitive function along the factors of attention, perseveration, constructional ability, conceptualization, and memory. Because a score of less than 123 has been used as a cutoff for dementia (Montgomery & Costa, 1983), we applied this criterion to separate the patients with Parkinson's disease into subgroups with dementia and without dementia. All of the subjects with Alzheimer's disease had a DRS of less than 123.
Numbers The most common errors in the patients with Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease with dementia consisted of omitting numbers, adding extra numbers, ordering numbers incorrectly, and positioning the numbers poorly (Figure 3-2A,B). As expected, these errors were most common in the more severely impaired subjects. In addition, patients with Parkinson's disease and dementia frequently placed numbers outside the clock contour (Figure 3-3A). Subjects who omitted numbers often did so because the contour was too small to contain them all.