Download Cloning: A Beginner's Guide (Beginners Guide (Oneworld)) by Aaron D. Levine PDF

By Aaron D. Levine

May still we clone extinct or endangered species? Are we justified in utilizing stem cells to increase treatments? whilst do we clone the 1st human? Ever due to the fact Dolly the sheep, questions like those have hardly ever been faraway from the general public recognition, and cloning is now poised to revolutionize medication, healthcare, or even the foodstuff we devour. during this masterful creation, Aaron Levine explains the technological know-how and improvement of cloning, correct as much as the present-day scandals surrounding makes an attempt to clone people. Guiding readers round the thorny political and moral matters raised by means of such growth, Levine dispels the myths perpetuated through the media and sheds new mild at the execs and cons of this attention-grabbing and arguable subject.

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Additional resources for Cloning: A Beginner's Guide (Beginners Guide (Oneworld))

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This barrier, the plasma membrane, allows nutrients and some other substances to pass freely into and out of the cell, while blocking the passage of other materials. Protein complexes dot the membrane and control the transport of large molecules across it. They have a nucleus. This structure is typically found near the center of the cell and contains its DNA. The nucleus is surrounded by two membranes, each similar to the plasma membrane, which together form the nuclear envelope. This envelope is dotted with indentations, nuclear pores, which are the sites of transport into and out of the nucleus.

We’ll learn more about cell structure later but what matters for now is that in the late 1800s, scientists begin to observe chromosomes: long thread-like structures in the center of cells. Once Mendel’s laws were rediscovered, it wasn’t long before scientists realized that these structures had a lot in common with his proposed factors. In 1902, Walter Sutton, then a graduate student at Columbia University, first noted this similarity. Through his work on grasshopper cells, he noticed that most cells had two copies of each chromosome but that egg and sperm cells had only one copy.

Other cells Figure 7 The cell cycle. qxd 4/4/2007 11:42 AM Page 29 A cloning parts list: cells, genes, and embryos 29 Figure 8 Mitosis (the M phase of the cell cycle) is the process through which one cell divides into two identical daughter cells. To ensure each daughter cell is genetically identical, all the chromosomes line up and then segregate to opposite ends of the dividing cell. have much shorter lives: red blood cells, which are responsible for the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide through the body, live an average of 120 days, while the cells that line the human gut typically live only three to five days.

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