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Surface conduction takes place mostly through the compact layer of the EDL. Particularly in the cases of low bulk ionic concentrations (below 10~4 M) and small microchannels, the surface conduction may have a significant contribution to the total conduction current. Usually, the surface conductivity, Xs, is considered as the conductivity of a sheet of material of negligible thickness, with a unit ohnT'nT1. Specific surface conductivity values are of the order 1(T9 ~ 10~8 for water in glass capillaries.

6. Illustration of the surface charge density dependence on pH and the bulk ionic concentration. 7. Illustration of the zeta potential dependence on pH and the bulk ionic concentration. = This equation implies that a ten-fold increase in the ion concentration, nh will have a relatively small change in the potential. Note that if we choose z, = - 1 , the sign in the above equation will change, indicating that the effect of positive and negative ions on the potential change is opposite. 7. Clearly, for a given electrolyte solution, the surface charge and zeta potential can be changed from positive to negative by varying the pH value of the solution.

Lyklema, "Fundamentals of Interface and Colloid Science", Vol. I and II, Academic Press, 1995. W. Qu and D. Li, J. , 224 (2000) 397-407. 30 Electrokinetics in Microfluidics Chapter 3 Electro-viscous effects on pressure-driven liquid flow in microchannels Just as rapid advances in microelectronics have revolutionized computers, appliances, communication systems and many other devices, microfluidic technologies will revolutionize many aspects of applied sciences and engineering, such as heat exchangers, pumps, gas absorbers, solvent extractors, fuel processors, on-chip biomedical and biochemical analysis instruments.

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