By Pascal Hitzler
Exploring basic study questions, Conceptual constructions in Practice takes you thru the fundamental but nontrivial activity of building conceptual relatives because the origin for examine in wisdom illustration and data mining. It contains contributions from best researchers in either the conceptual graph and formal thought research (FCA) communities.
This available, self-contained booklet starts off by means of offering the formal history in FCA and conceptual graphs. It then describes numerous software program instruments for research and computation, together with the ToscanaJ suite. Written through the unique visionaries of the sphere, the following part discusses the background and destiny instructions of conceptual constructions. the ultimate chapters discover in demand program parts in desktop technological know-how, together with textual content research, net semantics, and clever systems.
An exceptional, cutting-edge review from innovators within the box, this quantity discusses how FCA and conceptual graphs can be utilized in lots of laptop technology components. It serves as a benchmark of analysis on conceptual constructions, inspiring additional exploration during this self-discipline.
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Extra info for Conceptual Structures in Practice
The term “line of identity” is adopted from Peirce’s existential graphs and refers in this quotation to the coreference links of CGs). In particular CGs are designed to have at least the full power of first-order logic, that is first-order logic with identity, object names, and predicate names, but without function names. In the following, we will use the abbreviation FOL for this style of logic. Anyhow, as we have seen, the system of CGs is richer than FOL. To show how CGs and FOL are related, Sowa defines a formal operator Φ that maps CGs to FOL.
Even if a context is already given, one is often interested in the implications that hold, either because of their informative value or because of the potential simplification of representation. Computing meaningful sets of implications can be a challenging task, since most of the implications of a context are trivial and of little interest. It is therefore necessary to single out the “relevant” implications from that set. Such reduced sets of implications can still capture all semantic relationships holding in a context.
Instead, a (subjective) selection of important works is provided. 1 Simple Conceptual Graphs Probably the most prominent and best investigated fragment of CGs is the class of simple conceptual graphs (SCGs). 1, there does exist a variety of different formalizations and even different understandings of SCGs. Basically, a SCG is a CG without contexts, which – due to Sowa’s modelling of negation as a special context– excludes (full) negation. Anyhow, there are at least two finer subdivisions of SCGs: We will distinguish between non-existential and existential SCGs, that is, SCGs without or with generic markers, and between SCGs without or with coreference links.