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Development of these organs led to prominences or ‘bumps’ in the individual’s skull. A bump on the skull indicated a well-developed underlying cortical gyrus (a raised part of brain tissue) and therefore a greater faculty for a particular behaviour. Conversely, a skull depression was a sign of an undeveloped gyrus and, therefore, a lack of function. This notion was known as phrenology or anatomical personology and was devised by the Viennese physician and anatomist Franz Joseph Gall (1758–1828) and his co-worker, Johann Caspar Spurzheim (it was Spurzheim who actually coined the term).

R. 5 from Aging reduces neural specialization in ventral visual cortex, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 101 (35), pp. , Savage, A. 7 from Does it all go together when it goes? The nineteenth Bartlett memorial lecture, Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Vol. 46A, (Rabbitt, P. 1 from Neural circuitry of anxiety: evidence from structural and functional neuroimaging studies, Psychopharmacology Bulletin, Vol. A. L. A. 1982) by kind permission of Mrs V.

Chapter 8 describes these disorders in more detail. One dog, two scientists, and a German dressing table: the beginnings of modern neuropsychology Much of the clinical evidence in the 15th century strongly suggested that localization of some functions, especially language-related functions, was probable. QXD 11/29/05 1:09 PM Page 10 10 Human Neuropsychology of the modern science of cerebral localization and neuropsychology. Gustav Theodore Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig, two young German physicians, discovered that not only was the neocortex excitable by electrical stimulation but that it was selectively excitable (Fritsch and Hitzig 1870).

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