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The objective of this chapter and the next is to provide the reader with an intuitive feeling for the nature of these two factors. The first section presents some concepts and terms from the field of electrical engineering; this should provide sufficient background for the remainder of the chapter. 2 clarifies the use of the terms analog and digital. Either analog or digital data may be transmitted using either analog or digital signals. Furthermore, it is common for intermediate processing to be performed between source and destination, and this processing has either an analog or digital character.

12 Standards track diagram. After significant implementation and operational experience has been obtained, a specification may be elevated to standard. At this point, the specification is assigned an STD number as well as an RFC number. Finally, when a protocol becomes obsolete, it is assigned to the historic state. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) I S 0 is an international agency for the development of standards on a wide range of subjects. It is a voluntary, nontreaty organization whose members are designated standards bodies of participating nations, plus nonvoting observer organizations.

Finally, the chapter looks at wireless LANs. Bridges The increasing deployment of LANs has led to an increased need to interconnect LANs with each other and with wide-area networks. Chapter 14 focuses on a key device used in interconnection LANs: the bridges. Bridge operation involves two types of protocols: protocols for forwarding packets and protocols for exchanging routing information. This chapter also returns to the topic of ATM LANs to look at the important concept of ATM LAN emulation, which relates to connecting other types of LANs to ATM networks.

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