By Jay Gitlin
Histories are inclined to emphasize conquest through Anglo-Americans because the motive force at the back of the improvement of the yankee West. during this clean interpretation, Jay Gitlin argues that the actions of the French are the most important to realizing the phenomenon of westward expansion.
The Seven Years struggle introduced an finish to the French colonial firm in North the USA, however the French in cities equivalent to New Orleans, St. Louis, and Detroit survived the transition to American rule. French investors from Mid-America similar to the Chouteaus and Robidouxs of St. Louis then grew to become brokers of switch within the West, perfecting a method of “middle grounding” via pursuing alliances inside of Indian and Mexican groups earlier than American payment and re-investing fur exchange gains in land, city websites, banks, and transportation. The Bourgeois Frontier offers the lacking French connection among the city Midwest and western expansion.
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Extra info for The Bourgeois Frontier: French Towns, French Traders, and American Expansion (The Lamar Series in Western History)
Many progressives used it to improve their cities, to bring politics closer to the people. Samuel lones had rented an empty factory and hired unemployed workers to run it according to the Golden Rule, a principle that he tried to apply to politics by establishing an eight-hour day tor city employees and reforming the police. Mayor Tom lohnson, who made Cleveland a model city, introduced public ownership of utilities, reduced trolley fares, humanized prisons, and created parks, playgrounds, and public baths.
Congressional Democrats did not want to accept the islands as a colony, yet some changed their minds after Bryan, who wanted to make imperialism an issue in the 1900 presidential election, endorsed the treaty. On February 6, 1899, the Senate approved the treaty 57 to 27, just one vote more than the required two-thirds majority. Even without the Philippines, the United States was destined to be a Pacific power because of its long western coastline, but acquisition of the islands gave the country a more tangible stake in the area.
This aggressive use of power irritated Congress. If Roosevelt annoyed some, he engaged the press and the public. On a hunting trip he refused to shoot a bear cub, and manufacturers created a toy "Teddy bear"; it became a favorite with children. Only the catastrophe of the 1906 earthquake and fires that devastated San Francisco could push Roosevelt off the front page momentarily. Through much of Roosevelt's tenure, the nation was prosperous: the gross national product (the value of all goods and services produced in the country), income, and consumption grew.